How Do Self Driving Cars Work?

Fully autonomous vehicles aren’t really here yet, at least not in the way we’ve imagined them in the past. They’re coming, but in the meantime, autonomous features enable some pretty powerful and convenient functions.

For people just learning about new mobility technology, the term “autonomous vehicle” can be a bit confusing. What is an autonomous vehicle? Is a self-driving car autonomous all the time, or can humans take control of driving functions where and when they want? How exactly do autonomous vehicles work? This article offers insights into the world of autonomous vehicles.

What is an autonomous vehicle?
First and foremost, an autonomous vehicle has an internal computing platform that can take over some or all of the driving tasks and free up the vehicle’s driver to do other things, such as work-related activities, entertainment, or nothing at all. Of course, the phrase “take over the duties of driving” does not imply simplified functionality; even if those duties are applied only to parking, there are myriad inputs, variables and decision-making processes to consider.

How does a self-driving vehicle work?
First, sensors-including radar, sonar, and/or LiDAR (which stands for light detection and ranging)-are used in conjunction with cameras for self-driving cars to build a picture of their surroundings and upcoming events. One of the main functions of autonomous vehicle platforms is to detect obstacles and/or moving objects-whether pedestrians, other vehicles, motorcycles, or bicycles-and avoid them so that collisions do not occur. A radar transceiver emits a radio wave that reflects objects and obstacles and bounces back to the transceiver’s sensor for processing. The length of time it takes for the wave to bounce back determines the distance to a particular object or obstacle. Sonar and LiDAR work in the same way, except that sonar uses sound instead of radio waves and LiDAR uses lasers.

In addition to these sensors, driverless cars use cameras as well as global navigation satellite systems (GNSS)-of which the U.S. government-funded Global Positioning System (GPS) is one type. Self-driving vehicles take all of these inputs-sensors, cameras, and GNSS data-and synthesize them to obtain a very accurate three-dimensional model of what surrounds them. By constantly updating this data dozens or even hundreds of times per second, autonomous vehicle platforms can see what objects are moving (e.g., cars that make up oncoming traffic) and predict their trajectories seconds (or even minutes) into the future.

The other main function of autonomous vehicle platforms is to apply braking, acceleration, and steering so that vehicles can drive themselves (displacing human drivers) when and where necessary. To accomplish this, autonomous vehicle platforms must be physically wired to the electronic control units (ECUs) that control these functions of the cars in which they are installed.

SAE autonomy levels of self-driving vehicles.
The circumstances under which a car takes control of driving functions and what a driver must do when this occurs are described by autonomy levels defined by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). These levels are as follows:

Level 0: At this level (“No automation”), there is no autonomous function of a vehicle at all; cars that are not autonomous vehicles operate at SAE autonomy level 0.
Level 1: This level (“Driver Assistance”) allows a vehicle to assist a driver with certain functions, such as Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC); The vehicle can either accelerate/brake or steer, but not both at the same time.
Level 2: At this level (“Partial Automation”), advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) allow a vehicle to handle both acceleration/braking and steering simultaneously. Drivers still need to keep their hands on the vehicle’s steering wheel and their feet on the brake and gas pedal pedals.
Level 3: This level (“Conditional Automation”) allows a vehicle to take over driving completely under certain circumstances. Drivers can take their hands off the wheel, but must still keep their attention on the road and their immediate surroundings. Drivers must be ready to resume control of their vehicle in a few seconds (in cases where drivers are unwilling or unable to take back this control, their vehicle gradually slows to a complete stop).
Level 4: At this level (“High Automation”), drivers can completely divert their attention from the road and the driving task so that they can engage in other activities, including socializing with other passengers and entertainment. It is envisioned that driver seats in a number of SAE Level 4-capable vehicles of the future will be able to rotate 180 degrees, allowing the driver to face the rear of the vehicles and interact directly with rear-seat passengers.
Level 5: This level (“full automation”) of autonomy is what most people envision when they think of driverless cars; The car does absolutely everything itself; There is no longer a “human” driver “. In fact, purpose-built SAE Level 5 vehicles typically lack all driving controls, such as a steering wheel, manual brakes, and an accelerator pedal; The person who was previously the driver of the vehicle is now considered simply another passenger.
In general, the higher you go on the SAE autonomy scale, the more expensive the technology required to achieve such a level.

Self-driving car benefits
Why do we need self-driving cars? It’s a great question-because just because we can make this technology work, the question remains-why is it beneficial to us?

The immediate answer should be obvious: safety. Every year, at least 1.35 million people die in traffic accidents worldwide. A common goal of self-driving car developers is to one day achieve “Vision Zero”-an idealized goal of reducing traffic-related fatalities to zero through the use of a variety of strategies, including (in many cases) the universal adoption of autonomous vehicles (and in a large number of cases, the banning of non-autonomous vehicles) on public roads.

Beyond safety, there are the factors of comfort and convenience to consider. Imagine if drivers no longer had to operate their vehicles themselves. What could they do with this newfound freedom and time? Rapid advances in car cockpit technology have allowed people to relax, connect with colleagues, family and friends, and communicate and share messages, data and even streaming video with them. With infotainment systems, passengers and drivers can now watch movies, listen to music, and enjoy the latest video games and interactive entertainment in their driverless cars.

As technology increases, this infotainment becomes more immersive, and augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) experiences allow vehicle occupants to leverage their real-world location and surroundings to increase productivity and leisure. Vehicles are becoming intelligent, and technologies such as driver monitoring are enabling autonomous vehicle platforms to know when (and if) vehicle occupants can and should take over driving or perform other tasks.

As more cars become self-driving, intelligent transportation systems (ITS) can use artificial intelligence (AI) and Big Data to optimize traffic flow on roads and make travel more efficient for millions of travelers.

The current state of self-driving car technology
Currently, many new vehicles have adequate SAE-defined autonomy, which typically includes at least some features that would be considered SAE Level 1 and 2 features such as adaptive cruise control (ACC), lane departure warning (LKA), and active park assist (APA). Some cars have gone further and incorporated advanced features such as traffic sign recognition (TSR) and remote park assist.

But a true SAE Level 3 operation-where drivers can take their hands off the wheel (while keeping their eyes on the road) and let the car drive itself-has been included on only a handful of cars, including vehicles from Audi, Nissan, and NIO. A major drawback to this SAE Level 3 functionality is that, depending on the car manufacturer, it only works on highways and possibly only at low speeds or in single lanes.

For SAE Level 4 functionality, one must turn to “robotaxi” services operated by companies such as Waymo, Aptiv, and DeNA. In limited, well-defined areas (where weather and traffic are generally mild), these companies’ robotaxi vehicles can perform most driving functions. In many cases, however, a backup driver is still present in the vehicle for safety reasons. For truly driverless SAE Level 5 operations, one must turn to low-capacity, minivan-style autonomous vehicles currently in use at a select number of locations around the world, including some airports and office parks. These vehicles literally lack any kind of manual driving controls, as well as anything that can be called a “driver’s seat. “At the same time, many of these vehicles do not drive in mixed traffic-instead, they drive in dedicated lanes or on dedicated roads and only at low speeds (below 40 km/h).

To see more advanced progress in terms of SAE-defined autonomous functionality, one may have to look at other autonomous vehicle types—self-driving trucks, buses, and industrial/commercial vehicles. In some of these cases, clear task-based functions make autonomous driving easier and a better fit based on particular operating constraints and/or environments.

Driverless cars in the future
Going forward, more automakers will start to add highway-only SAE Level 3 capability to their cars. Slowly over time, the caveats that are present with this functionality in today’s cars will disappear. At some point in time, this Level 3 operation will transition to SAE Level 4—but only on highways.

It may be a decade or more before we see SAE Level 3 or 4 operation on normal streets due to liability reasons. Until the robotaxi-style SAE Level 4 operation that’s been successfully demonstrated by Waymo and others can be replicated universally on all roads, in all towns and cities, under any weather or traffic conditions, the risks are too great for carmakers to incorporate this functionality in their vehicles. (In 2018, an Uber self-driving car accidentally killed a pedestrian in Arizona—an incident that sent shock waves through the self-driving vehicle industry and led to a re-examination of many testing practices.)

However, it’s possible that in the medium-term future, some automakers may allow SAE Level 4 or 5 functionality to be “switched on” in certain geographic areas at certain hours of the day or in specific weather conditions (clear, sunny skies, for instance). While the “Vision Zero” goal of zero fatalities from traffic accidents may never be achieved in reality, it’s possible—even likely—that we will one day get very close to it.

In summary, it’s been a long journey research- and development-wise to get to the level we’re at currently regarding self-driving vehicle technology. Many millions of kilometers have been driven in test vehicles, and billions of kilometers have been run in simulations to get autonomous vehicle platforms to the state they’re in today. While some industry observers were predicting we’d all be driving SAE Level 5-capable autonomous cars by now, progress has been slower on several fronts than many researchers expected. Component costs, technology constraints, and simply the sheer number of potential scenarios that a vehicle can encounter when traveling on public roads have all been limiting factors that have impeded the rapid achievement of universal SAE Level 5 functionality. But if the recent past is anything to go by, it’s quite possible that by 2025, we’ll be well on our way to the long-envisioned dream of fully self-driving cars where the word “drive” will only apply to machinery, and the occupants in a vehicle will all be passengers.

The First Car Company to Offer air Conditioning In Its Cars

Which Car Company was the First to Offer Air Conditioning in its Cars?

The 1940 Packard was the first car to offer factory-installed air conditioning.
By 1969, more than half of all new cars sold were equipped with A/C.
Some brands put up window decals to advertise their air-conditioned cars.
For cars not equipped with factory air, dealer-installed, under-dash units were popular.
In a 1971 cover story, The New York Times implicated air conditioning in the death of the convertible, postulating, “In the age of air conditioning, real air has lost its value.”
After Freon, used in air conditioners, was blamed for depleting the ozone layer, automakers were required to switch from R12 to the less harmful refrigerant R134a by 1996.
Dual-zone automatic climate control allows separate temperature settings for the driver and front passenger; some cars have additional zones for rear-seat passengers.
Volkswagen calls its manual air conditioning “Climatic;” automatic A / C is ” Climatronic.”
Today, more than 99 percent of all new cars are air conditioned.
There is no air conditioning in base versions of the Chevrolet Aveo; Honda Civic; Hyundai Accent and Elantra; Jeep Wrangler; Kia Forte and Rio; Mazda 3; Mitsubishi Lancer; Nissan Versa; and Toyota Tacoma.
Consumer Reports tests found that using a car’s air conditioner resulted in a loss of more than 3 mpg at highway speeds. Driving with the windows open had no measurable effect on fuel economy.

How Many Cars Does Jay Leno Have?

Most people know Jay Leno from his hit news program The Tonight Show, but his other claim to fame is his extensive collection of cars. Just like David Letterman, Leno uses much of his money to buy and maintain a wide selection of rare vehicles, with many of the cars having values of six figures or more.

In total, his collection of 286 vehicles (169 cars and 117 motorcycles) is worth more than $50 million, all housed in a custom garage larger than most people’s homes.

Jay Leno bought his first car in 1964 at the age of fourteen. He started building his collection a few years later when he got his driver’s license and managed to get his hands on a variety of different makes and models.

When Jay Leno started liking cars as a teenager, one of the first ones he set his sights on was the 1963 Chrysler Turbine. It is one of the most expensive and sought-after cars in his collection. This, along with an Ecojet designed just for him, are the only two Turbine cars he owns.

Electric cars
Jay Leno owns five electric cars so far. Three of them date back to the early 1900s, including the classic Baker Electric, which is incredibly hard to find in today’s market. He even updated his 1914 Detroit Electric for modern times, giving it Bluetooth and air conditioning.

Steam Cars

There are seven steam cars in Jay Leno’s garage. Most of them are Stanley Steamer cars. He also owns a 1925 Doble E-20, the first steam car that only required the simple turn of a key to start. This made it the most efficient steam powered car.

These cars have a much longer structure and loud tank engines that can be heard from a mile away. Jay Leno has a few of these vintage cars, including the Mercedes Radic and the 1917 Fiat Botafogo.

The most famous giant cars in his collection are the modern Chrysler tanker and the Blastolene Special, designed by Randy Grubb especially for Jay Leno. The cars cost over $350,000 to build.

There are a few trucks to be found in Jay Leno’s collection. Most of these trucks are service vehicles, including an unusual 1911 Christie fire truck and a 1946 Shell oil truck. This seems like an odd choice for a car collector, but since Leno also owns one of the very odd and limited edition Davis Divan tricycles, it’s not much of a shock.

Race cars
Jay Leno may not be a racer, but that doesn’t stop him from collecting these beautiful and iconic cars. He owns seven race cars, including favorites like the 2006 Ariel Atom and the incredibly rare Light Car Company Rocket. Two of these cars are from Bugatti, the vintage predecessor to the modern race car.


These cars are known for being powerful and having some of the steepest price tags. Jay Leno owns fourteen supercars, including the 1969 Lamborghini Miura S, considered one of the finest supercars of all time.

The most expensive supercar in Jay Leno’s garage is the 2014 McLaren P1. Only 375 of these cars exist today and are worth about $1.35 million. He also owns the 1994-version worth $970,000.

These seem to be one of Jay Leno’s favorite cars, as he has over 30 in his collection. In 2018, he managed to acquire a 1966 Lincoln Continental. While Leno does many restorations on his older cars, this was completely original and perhaps the most valuable convertible in his collection.

It is clear to see what kind of cars Jay Leno likes the most. He has almost 50 coupes in his collection,with models ranging from 2015 to 1915.

The most expensive car in Jay Leno’s entire collection is his 1955 Mercedes 300SL Gullwing Coupe. He initially paid an astounding $1.8 million for it and then devoted hundreds of hours restoring the car to make it even more impressive and valuable.

Who Makes Genesis Cars?

Genesis is the luxury brand of Hyundai. The Genesis name first appeared on a flagship Hyundai sedan, starting with the 2009 model year. It then morphed into the South Korean automaker’s luxury division starting in 2017 with a two-model lineup, the G80 and G90 sedans.

Since then, the brand has been known for high-quality, high-performance, luxury-laden vehicles with rear- or all-wheel drive that offer plenty of value for money compared to BMW, Mercedes-Benz and other luxury luminaries. Models include the G80 midsize sedan and the G90 full-size sedan, as well as the G70 sports sedan.

Starting in 2021, the brand will branch out into SUVs, with the GV80 midsize SUV followed by the GV70 smaller SUV.

Who Buys Junk Cars?

Has your car seen better days? Does it have a face only a mother could love? Whether it was finished yesterday or has been sitting in your driveway for months. If your daily-driver is reaching junk status, it may be time to think about getting rid of it. Who buys junk cars for the most money?

Luckily, in this article we’ll review the entire process of selling a junk car. Including how to price one, who buys them, and what to do if you don’t have a title.

The first question asked by most thinking of selling a wrecked vehicle is, “How much is my junk car worth? “Fortunately, with online pricing tools like Kelly Blue Book (KBB) and NADA Guides. It’s easy to find out the answer.

Kelly Blue Book
First, enter the make and model of your car. As well as the trim level, number of miles and zip code of your area. Once you’ve done that, you’ll see a list of scores ranging from fair to excellent. Each relates to the extent of problems (cosmetic defects,mechanical problems, etc.).

The great thing about KBB is that it looks for relative cars in your area and factors them into the crowd. How does this help? It makes sure you are fairly valuing your car AGAINST something similar nearby.

They also work with local dealers. That is, if there are any that participate in KBB “Instant Cash Offer” pricing. It’s as easy as walking in with a printout.

NADA Guide
NADA is similar to KBB in many ways in that you enter the specifics of your vehicle and get a list of values. The big difference is that NADA is more retail and trade-in based. Rather than private party pricing.

A good rule of thumb when pricing a car for private sale is to subtract $1,000 from the NADA sale price. Why? Because it accounts for the lack of dealer benefits. Like an interior and exterior detail, certification and warranties.

Regardless of whether you choose NADA or KBB. As long as you value your junk car based on the shape it’s in, you should be able to find someone willing to pay for it.

How a salvaged title affects value
Unfortunately, when you price a salvaged car, the amount you can sell it for goes down by a large margin. How much? As much as 80% less. That is, if NADA or KBB shows an amount of $10,000, a reconstructed title drops to $2,000. You can always try more, but the moment the buyer realized that he was saved, you will find a lot of resistance.

For this reason, selling a car to a private party or selling it to an online junk car buyer is rarely worth it. Fortunately, CashCarsBuyers makes it easy. After a quick 1-minute quote, we schedule an inspection at your home. If everything matches, we’ll pay you cash on the spot and tow it away for free.

Now that you have a better idea of how much you can sell a junk car for. Let’s take a look at who buys junk cars locally.

Who buys junk cars near me?

Dealerships might be the first place you think of when you wonder who is buying junk cars in the area. But, the truth of the matter is that if you call your car junk, they probably do too. There’s a reason you see older cars for sale more often from private sellers than on many. Because prominent dealers don’t sell “as-is” units for liability reasons.

Does your car have engine problems? A dealer must fix it before offering it for sale. Does it have body damage? If it’s too bad, they need to fix it before anyone thinks about looking at it. When you get an offer, you know they’ve probably deducted a remarkable amount from the value.

Some dealers focus exclusively on selling “as-is” cars, but they are few and far between. Not only that, but they rarely pay much because they have access to cheap outside sources. Like junkyards and auctions.

Private party
As mentioned earlier, private buyers buy junk cars for the most money. Unfortunately, closing the sale can take a while. For the best chance of finding a buyer, be as detailed as possible in your listing. If it has engine problems, mention them. You should also include any offers you may have received from a store. Which will allow you to justify your prices.

If there is body damage, it is best to disclose it with several high quality photos. The last thing you want to do is waste time. By showing any wear and tear. You reduce the likelihood that someone will decide against taking it off your hands.

If you are familiar with a computer, try listing your junk car on Craigslist. Not only does it get an average of 50 billion page views per month, but it only costs $5 to list a car for sale. Be sure to check out our previous article for a detailed guide to selling a car on Craigslist.

In the last section, we described how to price your car show for sale using online pricing tools. If you recall, a salvaged vehicle is worth up to 80% less than one with a clean title. The sad truth is that salvage yards take their offers a step further. Instead of relying on KBB or NADA values. Scrapyards determine the value of your car by how much it weighs. Why? Because they intend to scrap it. That is, they sell all the working parts separately and melt the metal for reuse.

Because of this, the bigger your car, the more it weighs, resulting in a higher bid. How do you get ahead? By doing the” scrapping ” part yourself. By this, we mean removing all the valuable parts and selling them yourself. Some of these include exhaust systems, navigation screens, and wheels. Sounds like a lot of work? It is. But when you’re selling junk, your options are limited.

Plus, a junkyard doesn’t offer free towing. So if you’re hoping to make out with a few bucks in your pocket, you might end up with just breaking even. Be sure to monitor the current price of scrap metals like aluminum, steel and copper. If they are currently at low levels, it may not be a bad idea to let your car sit for a few more months until they increase.

Who buys junk cars without title?

Title of ownership
In most cases, you need a title in your name to sell a car. For junk cars, no title is not a problem as long as you have your driver’s license and a copy of your registration. If these are not met, you will need to go to a DMV office and apply for title.

Proof of insurance.
Most states require you to keep a car covered, even if you’re not driving it. Fortunately, you can cancel it once you transfer ownership to another person.

Odometer disclosure
Some states require you to disclose mileage at the time of transfer. However, in other cases, you only have to list it on the title when you transfer. The purpose is to make sure there are no discrepancies in mileage. Which is usually shown on a vehicle history report.

A Bill of Sale is an additional way to document a transaction. Prove ownership was transferred to someone else. Be sure to include the date, amount of sale, names of both parties and a description of the vehicle. Once completed, have it notarized to make it official.

Once you’ve gathered the right documents, selling a junk car is easy. But selling isn’t the only option – you can also donate it. Let’s check.

If you haven’t had any luck finding someone to buy cars and trucks with problems, consider donating it. While you won’t get cash in return, they offer free removal, as well as a receipt you can use during tax time. Typically, you can expect up to a $500 deduction.

Make sure you only donate to real charities that are registered 501(c)(3) organizations. Otherwise, you risk being scammed by places looking for a free car.